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Johnstown Flood

FOOTNOTES

*The black and white photos appearing in this research were courtesy of the Johnstown Flood Museum.

1. "The dam was built..." Condit, p 109

2. "...the core of the dam..." On site 1973 "dig."

3. "...the dam stretched..." American Society of Civil Engineers (as published in 'The Engineering Record' Vol. 24, Sept 5, 1891) p 237.

4. "...iron pipes..." Ibid., p 199. "Figures" 6 & 7 are from same (Fig 3 is from 1889 ASCE investigation).

5. "...let out for repairs..." Ibid., p 200 (referred to as "slight breaks," engineering talk for "leaks" )

6. "Figure 2" Compiled from various sources. Same for Fig. 3 insert.

7. "...the top of the original dam was cut down 2 ft, giving a road width of 17 feet."  Remains today at 17 feet. Also today, among the weeds on the old lake side, just below the road around "station 10+50" (see Figure 7), "riprap" is still present. The original builders would not have installed riprap higher on the ends of the dam.   

8. "29,000 cubic yards...35,000 tons..." Shappee, Nathan D. "The Johnstown Flood of 1889," p39.

9. "...screens...were 2.14 feet high..." ASCE, p 245.

10. The "sag" of the dam has been debated for years, no one has ever said it was less than six inches (the actual
      sag was near eleven inches)

11. "...the hillside was 175 feet..." ASCE, see Figs. 6 & 7

12. "...a trench..." Shappee, same as above, p 83.

13. "...insufficiency of the wasteway..." ASCE, p 216.

14. "...not be less than 150 feet." Ibid., p 198.

15. "...wastes..." Ibid., p 199 under heading: "Approximate estimate of work of dam for the Western division."

16. "...removal of earth and rock..." Ibid., 1889 measurements and on site measurements in 1972.

17. "...outlet side of trench..." See Fig. 6, The water through the "trench" ran for over four hours; yet, there are no
      erosion features on the remaining breastworks. Also in 1972, during a heavy rain storm, the drainage in that
      area ran well away from the remaining breastworks.

18. "...puddled dam construction..." See Figs. 6 & 7 from 1889, and on site verification in 1973.

19. "...over three and a half feet deep..." The actual original depth was near five feet below the original crest (all
      my calculations within the text are made at the extreme, in favor of the "Club").

20. "...wide enough to have carried off the waters..." ASCE, p 237. 0ne-hundred-fifty-feet "would have been
     sufficient size for the flood."

21. William E. Morris was born in1812 and died in 1875.

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Bibliography

Beale, D.J. Through the Johnstown Flood. Hubbard, Boston 1890

Condit, Carl W. "Dams." American Building. University of Chicago Press, 1968.

---- "Inquiry into the Cause and Failure of the South Fork Darn." The Engineering and  Mining Journal. 6/8/1889.

Johnson, Willis F. History of the Johnstown Flood. Edgewood, Phil. 1889.

McCullough, David G. The Johnstown Flood. Simon & Schuster, NY 1968.

McMaster, John Bach. "The Johnstown Flood." Pennsylvania Magazine of History and  Biography. July & Oct. 1933.

O'Connor, Richard. Johnstown - The Day the Dam Broke. Lippincott, Phil. 1957. (If one reads O'Conner carefully, it becomes obvious that he never visited the site.)

-----"Report of the Committee on the 'Cause of the Failure of the South Fork Dam.'" American Society of Civil Engineers. Vol. 24, June 1889, pp. 432 - 469.

--*-- "Report of the Special Committee on the 'Cause of the Failure of the South Fork Dam,'" to the American Society of Civil Engineers,   "1891 Transactions" as published in The Engineering Record, Sept. 5, 1891 pp199 - 245.

-----"Safety." Water Supply Engineering. McGraw Hill, 1949.

Shappee, Nathan D. A History of Johnstown. In manuscript form, dated 1940. University of Pittsburgh at Johnstown (Closed stacks).

Shappee, Nathan D. "The Johnstown Flood of 1889." The Western Pennsylvania Historical Magazine March 1940.

-----"The Johnstown Flood." New York Engineering News. June 15, 1889.

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