4: Teenage Dreams
Home Up 4: Teenage Dreams 5: Hard Times 6: The Artist 7: A Real German

4Footnotes

On a cold foggy evening in late February 1908, August Kubizek arrived in Vienna. As he stood amidst the confusion of the railroad station (Westbahnhof), he saw his friend approaching through the crowd. Hitler was wearing his dark, good quality overcoat and broad-brimmed hat. Already at ease in his new environment, he wore kid gloves and carried a walking stick with an ivory handle. The slim Adolf, Kubizek thought, "appeared almost elegant."*

After a warm greeting, they kissed on the cheek in the Austrian manner, they made their way to Hitler's apartment. After a short walk Hitler stopped in front of an imposing and distinguished building on Stumper Gasse.

Hitler's 1st Vienna Apartment
Vienna hall & door.jpg (41802 bytes)With Kubizek on his heels, Hitler entered the arched entrance off to one side, passed through the more elaborate section of the building, crossed a small courtyard and entered the humbler rear section of the building. They went up the polished stone staircase to the "second floor" (3rd in America) and entered a small room.

This was the same building Hitler had stayed during his attempt to enter the Art Academy a few months before. The monthly rent was ten kronen and although respectable, it was a no frills establishment in a lower middle class neighborhood. Hitler's monthly pension of 25 kronen only covered the cost of a meager diet, so he had to be frugal with what was left of his inheritance. Like most tenement houses it was infested with bugs and the whole floor, six small apartments, had only one lavatory. After Hitler cleared away the numerous sketches that lay around his room, he and Kubizek had something to eat. Although Hitler was still suffering and bitter over his mother's death, he insisted on taking Kubizek on a tour of the city.

They made their way to the Ringstrasse, the great boulevard (where once stood the city battlements) which circles the inner city. Hitler's blue eyes blazed excitedly as he pointed out many of the cities historical landmarks. Just off the Ring was the Art Academy which he still hoped to enter, and not far away was the Music Conservatory which Kubizek hoped to attend. Like any young man who grows and matures in a small town, Kubizek, like Hitler was overwhelmed by the vast and thriving city. Kubizek particularly wanted to see the immense soaring spire of St. Stephen's Cathedral but it was shrouded in the fog.

In one of his letters, Hitler had offered Kubizek the advantage of staying with him for awhile. Hitler, however, was still the independent type and knowing that he and Kubizek had their differences, he had added: "Later we shall see."*   Hitler's small room was not large enough to hold a piano that Kubizek would need to practice on so they spent the next morning looking for a room for Kubizek. It proved difficult.

Vienna was the most overcrowded capital city in Europe. Almost half the population lived in one or two rooms, and in the working districts 4 to 5 persons shared these "flats."*  The few rooms they found available were either sleazy, did not allow piano playing, or were too small to hold a grand piano. After a fruitless search in the immediate vicinity, they finally came to a house with a sign: "Room to Let."

They were admitted into the house by a maid and introduced to an elegant looking middle aged woman wearing a silk dressing gown, fur-lined slippers and little else. As she showed them around the house, including the available bedroom, she appeared to take a shine to Hitler. She suggested that Hitler rent the available room and turn his room on Stumper Gasse over to Kubizek. At that moment the belt of her dressing gown became loose and her gown opened momentarily. "Oh, excuse me, gentlemen," she calmly said as she redid the belt.*  Too fainthearted and too unworldly to take advantage of such an opportune moment, Hitler and Kubizek beat a hasty retreat.

They returned to their apartment and Hitler persuaded the landlady to give up her larger room next door for theirs. By the end of the day they had settled into the larger room, #17, for an additional 10 kronen a month. Because of the housing shortage, the normal rent for a one or two room flat ran from twenty-two to twenty-eight kronen per month in the laboring districts. Their room was a real bargain. Kubizek was again amazed by Hitler's gift of persuasion.

Within a few days of his arrival, Kubizek took his test and was admitted to the Music Conservatory. Kubizek's easy accomplishment magnified Hitler's failure to enter the Art Academy, and he appeared envious for a time. While Kubizek began attending morning classes, Hitler spent his time in one pursuit after another.

Some days Hitler relentlessly worked on his drawings, on another day, he would sit for hours reading on architecture, another, working tirelessly on an idea he had for a short story, the next, practicing on the piano Kubizek had rented.*  Kubizek would state that Hitler was never idle, but always "filled with a tireless urge to be active."*

Interestingly, Hitler never made use of the letter of recommendation he had received which introduced him to one of Vienna's best known stage designers, Alfred Roller. Years later he would comment: "One got absolutely nothing in Austria without letters of introduction. When I arrived in Vienna, I had one to Roller, but I didn't use it. If I'd presented myself to him with this introduction, he'd have engaged me at once. No doubt it's better that things went otherwise. It's not a bad thing for me that I had to have a rough time of it."*

Having to live on a minimum budget, they spent their leisure time visiting the Vienna Woods, taking boat trips on the Danube and even once took a train trip to the Alps and climbed a mountain. They also visited the numerous coffee houses in the area. "The Viennese cuisine was delightful;" Hitler would later recall, "at breakfast nothing was eaten, at mid day ... [people] lunched off a cup of coffee and two croissants, and the coffee in the little coffee-shops was as good as that in the famous restaurants. For lunch, even in the fashionable places, only soup, a main dish and dessert were served--there was never an entree."*  One of Hitler's favorite coffee-shops (which served a particular nut-cake he enjoyed) was a favorite of Jewish college students.*

To an inquiring mind, Vienna offered much for no cost. Hitler and Kubizek spent much of their free time touring the city. They strolled the avenues and visited the countless museums, churches, historical sites, parks and plazas. Hitler was particularly fond of the Schwarzenberg Platz, especially at night when the fanciful illuminated fountains produced incredible lighting effects. Most of Hitler's praises, however, were bestowed upon Vienna's huge and ornate buildings. He was very impressed by Schonbrunn Castle, the elegant 1200 room, royal summer residence of the Hapsburgs which had once been home to Napoleon himself. After viewing such luxury, Hitler often grumbled about the sparse room they had to return to.

On Sundays, Hitler enjoyed listening to musical groups or soloists performing at the city chapel. He was particularly found of the Vienna Boys Choir.*   There were also the countless parades, pageantry and social events which accompanied the Hapsburg dynasty. These events were normally stern, formal and dignified affairs that showed off the ruling dynasty as lofty and untouchable. In an age and in an empire that also believed in armed might, military holidays were celebrated with all the trappings of a society prepared for war.*

Two or three evenings each week they went to a theater, opera, or concert because as a student, Kubizek could often get free tickets. At concerts, Hitler was very fond of the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra. He enjoyed some of the music of the masters, Handel, Haydn, Mozart, and also the Romanticists, Weber, Schubert, Mendelssohn and especially Bruckner who had been an organist at the old Linz Cathedral for twelve years. Like most Viennese, Hitler also enjoyed the music of Johann Strauss and the Hungarian Liszt.

On one of their visits to a concert, Hitler and Kubizek struck up a conversation with a well-dressed, prosperous-looking man who invited them to a local hotel for something to eat. The man paid for everything and after a conversation in which he praised chamber music and demeaned women as gold diggers, he handed them a calling card as they departed. To Kubizek's surprise Hitler stated in a calm voice that the man was a homosexual. Hitler believed that homosexuality was an unnatural act and that “he wished to see it fought against relentlessly." They burned the calling card.*

When attending the theater Hitler preferred the more serious works, and Vienna's theaters offered masterpieces by some of Europe's best playwrights. Vienna was also a famed joyful and carefree city, and its less dignified theaters offered worldly, lighthearted and often risqué performances. Although Hitler never admitted to attending anything too risqué, he enjoyed Franz Lehar's The Merry Widow and often whistled Lehar's happy tunes.

At the theater one evening a group of young men were causing a disturbance. Hitler and Kubizek attempted to silence them. The leader of the group refused to keep his mouth shut and Hitler punched him in the side. When Hitler and Kubizek left the theater they found that the noisemaker had summoned a policeman who attempted to arrest Hitler. Hitler explained the situation and persuaded the policeman to let him go. Hitler then caught up with the troublemaker and gave him, to quote Kubizek, "a sound box on the ears."*

Just as in Linz, the opera was still Hitler's first choice in entertainment, but opera seats in Vienna were extremely expensive. Although Hitler preferred a seat in the upper balcony, to save money, he and Kubizek usually took the cheapest standing room. Like most people who go to movies today, Hitler did not care for foreign works. He was only interested in German customs, German feeling, and German thought. Except for Verdi's opera, Aida--the love story of an Ethiopian slave girl and an Egyptian warrior--he didn't care for most Italian operas because of the many plots involving "daggers." He also wasn't particularly fond of French operas and considered Gounod's Faust (there are two rapes within the opera) vulgar. Not even the Russian Tchaikovsky met with his approval. On the other hand he appreciated many of the works of the Germans Beethoven and Weber and was especially delighted with Mozart's antiestablishment comedy of infidelity, Figaro. His favorite works were by the highly acclaimed Richard Wagner who wrote about figures of medieval history, saga, and myth--similar to the "supper hero" movies of today.

Most of Wagner's heroes were purely human and were torn between desire and morality--Wagner believed in the first. During Hitler's years in Vienna, 15 different productions of Wagner's operas were performed in over 420 performances at the State Opera House alone.

Hitler attended every new offering and saw some of the performances over and over again. "I was so poor, during the Viennese period of my life," Hitler would later recall, "that I had to restrict myself to seeing only the finest spectacles. Thus I heard [Wagner's] Tristan thirty or forty times, and always from the best companies."*

Every young man has his idol and Wagner was Hitler's. "For me, Wagner is something Godly and his music is my religion," Hitler would later tell an American reporter. Kubizek also noted Hitler's devotion to Wagner. When Hitler attended a Wagner opera the music had a profound, exhilarating influence on him.* When talking to friends or other opera buffs, Hitler always praised Wagner with passionate devotion.*

Wagner not only wrote the music but the librettos (words) for his operas. He refused allegiance to any set forms. Besides composing, writing and producing his operas he occasionally took on the role of stage manager, director, and conductor. He referred to his mission as the "art work of the future," and to his operas as "music dramas." Wagner saw the orchestra as just adding to the action on the stage (much like background music in movies today), but he ruffled the egos of many persons of quality by concealing the conductor and orchestra so they would not distract from the performance.

Many of the themes of Wagner's music dramas were grounded on lofty German myths and legends which revealed human emotions that influence nearly all issues and relations. Like Wagner, Hitler was enthralled by the past and believed that great significance lay in German mythology. One of Hitler's favorites was Lohengrin. He could amaze opera buffs by reciting the entire libretto by heart. While living with Kubizek, he saw Lohengrin ten times.

Lohengrin's pomp, pageantry, and dramatic interest is compelling. It is considered by many to be the finest of all romantic grand operas. The plot is set in the tenth century and involves a beautiful blonde maiden who is falsely accused of murder. To her rescue comes the gallant Lohengrin, the "Knight of the Swan," who will champion the accused and later marry her. The love duet is exquisite ("one of the sweetest and tenderest passages of which the Lyric stage can boast")* and there is also the haunting Bridal Chorus. Besides the compelling music and German nationalism, Hitler no doubt associated with the silver-armored hero with his pure soul and wondrous flashing eyes. In the end, Lohengrin, called Fuhrer (leader) by his followers, is forced to reveal that he is a "Knight of the Holy Grail" and must give up love for a higher calling.

Another of Hitler's favorites was Die Meistersingers which is told in terms of a simple love story. The plot involves a young songwriter who comes up against traditional rules and methods. In the end he overcomes the rank prejudices of The Master Singers and while preserving what is best in art tradition, succeeds and wins the heroin for his bride. As with Lohengrin, Hitler knew the Meistersingers by heart.* 

If an indication of the ideals and beliefs of a young man can be judged on the entertainment he enjoys, the young Hitler appears very normal for his time. Aida, and Figaro, are two of the most popular operas ever performed in their time.*   The Meistersingers and Lohengrin have, almost since their conceptions been German favorites. Hitler's enjoying The Mastersingers is comparable to young people in every generation enjoying stories whose plots rebel against tradition and the old folks. The story was written by Wagner to scorn the establishment that once rejected him. The love story, however, is the backbone of the action and everything else is centered around it. The same thing can be said for Lohengrin and especially Tristan which is about love and (did they love the night) little else. That Hitler repeatedly enjoyed these operas places him in the majority of young men of his day who had high ideals concerning love and women. On the other hand, he could still laugh about the inconsistencies of love found in an opera like Figaro. But, the young Hitler was not the old Faust and could not understand a man giving up everything for youth and desire.

During their trips to the opera, concert or theater, Kubizek noticed that women would flirt with Hitler despite his usually modest clothing and reserved manner. On one occasion, a young lady handed Hitler a note informing him where she would be stopping after the performance. Although acknowledging that Hitler was not a handsome man in the standard sense, Kubizek believed that women were attracted to him because of his aloof but distinguished manners, or brilliant eyes, or some mysterious quality that can't be described.*  Because he was shy, Hitler never responded to these opportunities in Kubizek's presence, but not for a lack of interest in women. Like many eighteen year olds, Hitler had his favorite actress, Lucie Weidt (a gifted soprano ten years older than Hitler), who reminded him of Stefanie and "roused his enthusiasm in the part of Elsa in Lohengrin."*

Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis, noted during this period that people seldom, if ever discussed their sex drive. Hitler never talked about his desires or his sex life. When discussing the subject in an impersonal way, Hitler, according to Kubizek, found the loose morals in Vienna shocking. His belief was influenced by the terribly high rate of syphilis that existed in Europe at that time, and the incurable and horrible consequences of contracting it. A cure would not be readily available for a few years and complications of the heart, blood vessels, bones, skin, and finally paralysis and insanity were common. Hitler, like many others of his time had a fear of catching the disease* and would later condemn the government for its "complete capitulation" when an all out "fight" was needed to bring the "plague" under control to insure the "health" of the nation.*

Vienna, nonetheless, thrived with centers of prostitution and cafes where the sexes mixed liberally. A survey of doctors, carried out while Hitler lived in Vienna, revealed that only 4% of the doctors had their first sexual experience with middle class young women who might qualify as potential wives, 17% had their first experience with lower class waitresses or the like, while 75% had their first romp with prostitutes.*

    Spittelberg Gasse
Spittelberg G.jpg (71690 bytes)Hitler, like the doctors, was also familiar with the more worldly areas of Vienna including Spittelberg Gasse, just off the Ring and eleven blocks from his apartment, where girls and women sat in windows between customers. Hitler once escorted the reluctant Kubizek through the area and it was obvious Hitler had been there before. After "running the gauntlet," then doing an about face and retracing their steps, Hitler gave Kubizek a dissertation about "commercial love." He pointed out that the men were there only to satisfy their sexual urges while the women were only concerned with their "earnings"* --very perceptive for an 18 year old, or more likely, first hand knowledge.

Legalized prostitution in Austria dated from the Liberal ascendancy three decades before. When Hitler arrived in Vienna, any girl sixteen or older could register or apply for a license. She was then free to practice the profession as long as she could prove mental competence and meet simple health rules. Even with such liberal regulations, there was still a thriving free lance business throughout Vienna, and it was estimated that over 10,000 girls went unregistered.

On their evening excursions on the town, there were occasions when Kubizek and Hitler were approached by lone streetwalkers. According to Kubizek, in every instance the "ladies" ignored him and asked Hitler if he wanted to go with them. Kubizek thought that these girls of the "unholy city" were attracted to Hitler because they may have seen him as a man of moral restraint from the religious countryside. Hitler always refused in Kubizek's presence.

That Hitler would show indifference to prostitutes, or keep any encounters with loose women from Kubizek is quite possible. The class consciousness of the time made most men from the middle classes secretive about the lower class women they associated with. In addition, Kubizek had made clear his attitude toward the loose morals he encountered in Vienna: "this sink of iniquity, where even prostitution was made the object of the artist's glorification."*  Hitler on the other hand, though also condemning prostitution, saw nothing wrong with young men "chasing the girls."* When still a young man he scorned the prejudices, old habits, previous ideas, general opinions and "prudishness in certain circles,"* and would later state: "Contrary to popular belief, it is wrong to suppose that virginity is a particularly desirable quality; one cannot help suspecting that those who have been spared have nothing particular to offer!"*  He would also add: "In my time in Vienna, I knew many beautiful women"*

Kubizek had to get up early in the morning for classes and usually retired early while Hitler was often awake and out till late at night. There were times Hitler would go out and not return till the following day. On one occasion he disappeared for three days, and when he returned, “dead tired," Kubizek asked where he had been. Hitler gave him some feeble story about exploring the city and never brought up the subject again.* Hitler then spent the next two days designing apartments for the working poor with separate bedrooms for grownups and children; and, at the time, the luxury of a private bath."*

Nevertheless, Hitler, as earlier in Linz, also had suggestions for Vienna's planning and layout. He believed in wider streets, pollution control, and less crowding. He advocated the destruction of old tenement housing and the building of lower income housing where workers could live cheaply. He believed that there should be more areas set aside for parks and green areas. He thought it unthinkable that railroads should run through a city, tying up people and traffic. Railroads, he believed, should be rerouted to the outskirts and what trains that had to enter the city should be placed underground. These revolutionary ideas were already starting to have their effects in some of the larger cities throughout the world and Hitler no doubt read about them. That an eighteen year old could grasped their long range significance and advocated such a policy is noteworthy. As he had in Linz, he spent quite a bit of time working on drawings and the details of such planning.

Kubizek, in the meantime, continued with his classes and it was becoming apparent that he was one of the star pupils in the music school. He was constantly sought after to tutor other classmates and to perform in small musical groups in the homes of some of the wealthy and cultivated of Vienna. Occasionally Hitler went along and "enjoyed himself very much" though he normally chose to play the part of the silent listener. As he was in no financial position to buy new clothes, it was only his inadequate dress, Kubizek observed, that made him feel uneasy.

Hitler was proud of his friend's achievements but witnessing what appeared to be Kubizek's easy accomplishment, he began searching for a road to instant success. Although he continued drawing, he did little painting that summer.

Library.jpg (29719 bytes) The Hofburg, containing among other things, one of the most extensive (and beautiful) libraries in the world, was only a mile away from their room and Hitler visited there regularly. He continued to read on architecture and art, but also mythology, religion, history and biography. In his reading on architecture he acquired an extensive amount of history on many of Linz's buildings and appears to have attempted to write a handbook or manual on the subject.*  He then worked tirelessly on a short story he titled The Next Morning. He talked about becoming a playwright and after weeks of research at the library began a script centered on the time Christianity was introduced in Germany. He then switched to a play about the Spanish painter, Bartolome Murillo, who's art work Hitler knew well.*  Murillo had also been a "poor orphan" and became famous for his charming paintings of religious subjects and sweet street urchins. After a vigorous start, Hitler put the idea aside.

Gloriette.jpg (48485 bytes)When Hitler felt dejected he would walk to Schonbrunn Castle and spend his time in the huge adjoining park where miles of shaded walks wended their ways among clumps of trees, arbors, vast formal flower beds and elaborate fountains. Along with other attractions the park also contained a zoo and the Gloriette, an elaborate stone pavilion surmounted by a huge imperial eagle.

Stone bench.jpg (81027 bytes)Hitler's favorite spot was a stone bench not far from the Gloriette where he enjoyed feeding the birds and squirrels. (The stone bench, along with the descendants of those birds and squirrels, are still there at this writing.) He never went to the park on Sundays since he did not like crowds, and the noisy and carefree spirit of most of the young people annoyed him.

Sooner or later however, he would conceive another idea and wholeheartedly throw himself into it. After numerous day trips to the Hof-Library and night after night of continuous writing, he abandoned one idea after another. After countless false starts as a playwright or writer, he suddenly decided to become a composer.

Hitler spent months working on a Wagnerian type opera which would have been understood by ancient Germans. The work was to be performed with rattles, drums, reeds, crude brass wind instruments, primitive harps, and bone and wood flutes. He searched excitedly through volumes of the Hof-Library studying ancient music and looking for the types of musical instruments used by ancient Germans.

That he had no formal musical training, other than four months of piano lessons, daunted him not. To make up for his lack of knowledge he read the scores and librettos of a large number of operas and acquired an amazing knowledge of stagecraft.*   He worked on his opera night after night plotting the story, producing drawings for the sets, sketching the main characters in charcoal and composing the music with Kubizek's help. Kubizek acknowledged that the prelude turned out very presentable (after he had convinced Hitler to add a few modern instruments) but Hitler was not satisfied. "It reduced him to utter despair," Kubizek wrote, "that he had an ideal in his head, a musical idea which he considered bold and important, without being able to pin it down."*  Hitler finally realized that success as a composer was as hard to come by as that of a painter or writer and finally gave up. Dejected, he would return to the park and feed the pigeons and squirrels until another idea dawned.

Hitler came up with an idea for a traveling symphony. He felt it was unfair that only the lucky few in the major cities were privileged to hear first rate performances. His mobile orchestra was to travel to small towns where less fortunate people could hear other than second rate performances. He spent quite a deal of time working out the intricate little details, including the composition of the group, their feeding, dress, direction, and rehearsal time. He decided that only German composers would be played and he even timed the length of each piece while at concerts. The orchestra was not only to perform classic and romantic works (the oldies so to speak), but also the works of modern, young and unknown composers. As with traveling "concerts" today the ideal was plausible, but the lack of adequate public halls in small towns made him abandon the idea. He then returned to the park.

Like all idealistic young men on a minimum budget, Hitler became disillusioned and he soon developed a strong social conscious. He would visit the Parliament when it was in session, and on a few occasions even dragged Kubizek along. Hitler was amazed at the lack of action. He had expected to see stately men in control, debating and pondering over the problems of their day. What he saw was dissension, filibustering, confusion, rants, threats, procedure, formality and wordy nonsense. He came away disillusioned and was appalled by politicians and their, as he called it, "ridiculous institution."*

The Viennese are noted for their criticism ("a grumble a day keeps bad temper away," is one of their mottoes) and Hitler fit in well. "Isn't this a dog's life,"* became one of his favorite sayings and he began to blame government for his situation. He became impatient and developed a deep contempt for most politicians. He began raging openly against, as he called them: "the well-born and all powerful people." He felt that the government should provide grants to students with ability and that poor working young women should receive trousseaus to encourage marriage so as to cut down on fatherless children and sex-related diseases. He believed the government should do something to decrease the amount of alcoholic beverages consumed by promoting non-alcoholic drinks. And, he still felt that more should be done to house the working class.

Hitler actually worked out a plan for housing those with low incomes. Using his interior plan as a starting point, the standard building was to be a two storied, four family residence. Under no condition was any building to contain more than 16 families and all should be surrounded by gardens, trees, and play grounds. He thought professional landlords unfair and believed that housing should be owned and built by the government and the rent set to cover the cost and maintenance of the building. He devoted much of his thinking to moving people out of  "distress and poverty."*

The longer Hitler lived in the giant city, the more he saw of the inequalities. While the upper classes practiced an almost complete indifference, those of the younger and poorer generation began to openly criticize their leaders. Hitler became one of them for he could not understand the apathy and resignation of politicians and leading intellectuals. Their stance that "nothing can be done about it," earned them his undying hatred. "He who resigned," Hitler stated, "lost his right to live."*  He saw these men of education with their professional training as a group of "idiots." No doubt remembering that his more-than-qualified father had been held in the same position for seventeen years because of his background, Hitler felt that men who actually showed ability should be chosen to manage affairs as opposed to those with formal qualifications, class and connections.

With what was left of his inheritance running low and knowing that his pension would only support a meager living, disillusionment soon vented itself in anger. For no apparent reason, there were days when he would go into a rage about the unfairness of life. Any disagreement or rebuke on Kubizek's part only heightened his anger. A while later he would be calm, cooperative and charming. But, Kubizek noted, it was contrary to his nature to ignore important issues, and there were days he would read or see something that would set him off all over again. Hitler was often abrupt, moody, and brash, but Kubizek stated that he could never be angry with Hitler because he regarded him as a "visionary."

"For a long time, I had it rough in Vienna," Hitler would later recall. "For months I never even had a hot meal. I lived on milk and dry bread but spent thirteen kreuzers day after day on cigarettes. I smoked twenty-five to forty a day. One day the thought came to me: ’Instead of spending thirteen kreuzers on cigarettes, buy butter for your bread. That would be five kreuzers a day and I’d have money left over.’ Soon after that thought, I threw my cigarettes in the Danube and have never touched another"*  There is nothing worse than a reformed--whatever--and Hitler soon began ranting about the government's involvement in the tobacco industry. He argued that the State was ruining the health of its own people for monetary gains. He felt all tobacco factories should be closed and the importation of tobacco, cigars, and cigarettes be forbidden.* (Later, when Hitler became Fuhrer and his European conquests seemed unstoppable, he made the statement: "Before going into retirement, I shall order that all the cigarette packets on sale in my Europe should have on the label, in letters of fire, the slogan: 'Danger, tobacco smoke kills; danger: Cancer.'"*)

Reflecting on Hitler's meager fare, Kubizek concluded that much of Hitler's anger stemmed from his financial situation. Kubizek suggested that Hitler go to the "soup kitchen" and get a decent free meal. Hitler angrily retorted that going to a soup kitchen was demeaning and that such "contemptible institutions...only symbolized the segregation of the social classes."*

Many of Vienna's population lived in similar circumstances and Hitler "unhesitatingly" associated with the "simple, decent but underprivileged people."*  He thought something should be done for the "'little man,' the 'poor betrayed masses.'"*  He ranted about the "tight fisted" ways of the upper classes. As Kubizek would later state: "Everywhere we noticed a deep chasm between the social classes....We saw the splendid mansions of the nobility with garishly attired servants in front, and the sumptuous hotels in which Vienna's rich society--the old nobility, the captains of industry, landowners and magnates--held their lavish parties. Poverty, need, hunger on the one side, and reckless enjoyment of life, sensuality and prodigal luxury on the other." The obvious social injustice embittered Hitler and the presumptuous and arrogant demeanor of the upper classes "roused in him a demoniacal hatred."* He continuously railed "against the privileged position of certain classes."*

Although Kubizek always portrayed Hitler as a serious and stern young man, there was another side of him. Kubizek took a short trip home for the Easter holiday and wrote Hitler that he had contracted an eye infection and that when he returned he might be wearing glasses. Kubizek knew his constant practicing on the piano distracted or annoyed Hitler at times so he also mentioned that he was also going to bring a viola, testing what Hitler's reaction would be. On April 20, 1908, the day of his 19th birthday, Hitler wrote back (after making a joke about the bad weather in Vienna): “I am deeply sorry to hear that you are going blind. It means you will play more wrong notes and keys. The blinder you become, the deafer I will become. Oh dear." He also added that he was going out to buy "cotton" for his ears. He then signed the letter: "Your friend, Adolf Hitler."*

Kubizek returned shortly after and, in June, completed his first period at the Conservatory with excellent grades. He was privileged to conduct the end-of-term concert where three of his songs were sung and part of his sextet for strings was performed. At a gathering in the "artists' room," Kubizek was showered with praises by his teachers and classmates as Hitler sat quietly by himself watching. It appeared that for Kubizek, success was just around the corner.

Kubizek went home in July to work in the family business for the summer. Since he was nearly a year older than Hitler he was now of military age and was required to report for a physical. Found to be fit, he was to undergo eight weeks of training for the Army Reserve and would not return till November. Hitler's landlady also took a trip to visit her brother and Hitler looked after the building for her until she returned. Hitler kept in touch with Kubizek and on one occasion, referring to one of his ideas for a book, wrote: "Since your departure I have been working very hard often again until 2 or 3 in the morning."*  Knowing Hitler was running short of money Kubizek and his mother sent him some food packages. A few days later the proud Hitler would write on a postcard dated July 19, 1908:

        Dear friend!

        My best thanks for your kindness. You don't need to send me butter and cheese
        now. But I thank you most gratefully for the kind thought. Tonight I am going
        to see Lohengrin. Kindest regards to you and your esteemed parents.

                                                                                            Adolf Hitler.*

A few days later Hitler would write again mentioning that he was not feeling well. It was not until August 17 that Kubizek heard from him again. This time he mentioned that he had got over a "sharp attack of bronchial catarrh," but was "writing quite a lot lately."*

Late that August, Hitler took a trip to the Wooded Quarter for a family gathering on the Spital farm. Besides his two aunts and their families, his step-sister Angela and her family were also present. Hitler still disliked Angela's husband and had considered putting off the trip, but was no doubt shown the new addition to Angela's family--a two month old daughter called "Geli." He also saw his twelve year old sister, Paula, who was now a pretty, quiet and reserved girl. Hitler had previously given Paula the book Don Quixote (possibly after reading it) as a birthday gift and got into an argument with her because she disapproved of a list of books he obviously had read and suggested for her education. Since they were never very close, her rejection of his advice separated them further. Although "fond" of one another, as Paula would later state, they remained fairly distant all their lives. Before returning to Vienna, Hitler sent Gustl a postcard wishing him the "best" on his Name-day. It would be the last contact Kubizek would have with Hitler for thirty years. (After a promising beginning Kubizek's artistic dreams would be shattered by W.W.I. He became a "clerk.")

In Sept 1908 the nineteen year old Hitler applied for entrance to Vienna's Art Academy again. The drawings he submitted on this occasion were not considered adequate. He was notified, that this time he would not even be permitted to take the test. The 1908 entry in the Academy's list read:

The following gentlemen .... #24 Adolf Hitler ... April 20, 1889, German, Catholic .... Not admitted to test.*

Again he was crushed. This time he asked for a reason and was told that his abilities lay in architecture and it was recommended that he study that field. This judgment is borne out by his surviving drawings and paintings which show a flare for architectural renderings. To enter the Architectural branch of the Academy, however, a diploma was necessary. "What I had defiantly neglected in the high school " Hitler stated, "now took its bitter revenge."*  Since he lacked a diploma he would have to show that he was "exceptionally gifted" to enter the architecture field. Hitler was realistic enough to know that he did not possess such abilities and never attempted to register.

As Hitler would show many times in his life, he could not face people when things were going bad. Although Kubizek had previously offered Hitler financial help, Hitler, as with the food packages, was too proud to accept and decided to end their relationship. Because of his failure to gain admittance to the Academy for the second time, he no doubt felt ashamed to face Kubizek, or anyone else. Around the same time, Hitler also quit writing Hagmuller, the boy who used to have his lunch at the Hitler house in Linz, and they also "lost touch."*

   2nd Vienna Apartment
2nd Vienna h.jpg (72121 bytes)On Nov. 18, 1908, with Kubizek expected back in a few days, the dejected Hitler gave notice to his landlady. Without leaving a forwarding address he moved to a building across from the railway yards.  As required by law, he registered the change of address with the local police station. This time, he registered as a "student" instead of "artist" as he had done at his former address. He continued reading and looking for that special mission he was sure would come. Like most 19 year olds he no doubt carried the false assumption that all he had to do was plod along and rewards or success would automatically come.

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